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In early , a "Bay Bridge Committee" was hard at work on plans to construct a railroad bridge. The Bay Bridge Committee lately submitted its report to the Board of Supervisors, in which compromise with the Central Pacific was recommended; also the bridging of the bay at Ravenswood and the granting of railroad facilities at Mission Bay and on the water front.
Ralston, ex-Mayor Selby and James Otis were on this committee. A daily newspaper attempts to account for the advice of these gentlemen to the city by hinting that they were afraid of the railroad company, and therefore made their recommendations to suit its interests.
The self-proclaimed Emperor Norton saw fit to decree three times in that a suspension bridge be constructed to connect Oakland with San Francisco.
In the third of these decrees, in September , Norton, frustrated that nothing had happened, proclaimed:. WHEREAS, we issued our decree ordering the citizens of San Francisco and Oakland to appropriate funds for the survey of a suspension bridge from Oakland Point via Goat Island; also for a tunnel; and to ascertain which is the best project; and whereas the said citizens have hitherto neglected to notice our said decree; and whereas we are determined our authority shall be fully respected; now, therefore, we do hereby command the arrest by the army of both the Boards of City Fathers if they persist in neglecting our decrees.
Given under our royal hand and seal at San Francisco, this 17th day of September, Yet the task was too much of an engineering and economic challenge, since the bay was too wide and too deep there.
In , the California Legislature passed and Gov. A commission was appointed to evaluate the idea and various designs for a bridge across the Bay, the Hoover-Young Commission.
In January , Charles H. To make the bridge feasible, a route was chosen via Yerba Buena Island , which would reduce both the material and the labor needed.
Since Yerba Buena Island was a U. Navy base at the time, the approval of the U. Congress, which regulates the armed services and supervises all naval and military bases, was necessary for this island to be used.
After a great deal of lobbying, California received Congressional approval to use the island on February 20, , subject to the final approval of the Departments of War, Navy and Commerce.
The permits were granted in January, , and formally presented in a ceremony on Yerba Buena Island on February 24, During , a series of aerial photographs was taken of the chosen route for the bridge and its approaches.
The final design concept for the western span between San Francisco and Yerba Buena Island was still undecided in , although the idea of a double-span suspension bridge was already favored.
In April , the preliminary final plan and design of the bridge was presented by Chief Engineer Charles Purcell to Col.
Both agencies approved and preparation of the final design proceeded. Before work got underway, 12 massive underwater telephone cables were moved 1, feet north of the proposed bridge route by crews of the Pacific Telephone and Telegraph Co.
Construction began on July 9, The western section of the bridge between San Francisco and Yerba Buena Island presented an enormous engineering challenge.
East of Yerba Buena Island, the bay to Oakland was spanned by a 10,foot 3. Much of the original eastern section was founded upon treated wood pilings.
Because of the very deep mud on the bay bottom it was not practical to reach bedrock, although the lower levels of the mud are quite firm.
Long wooden pilings were crafted from entire old-growth Douglas fir trees, which were driven through the soft mud to the firmer bottom layers.
The original western approach to and exit from the upper deck of the bridge was a long ramp to Fifth, branching to Harrison St for westward traffic off the bridge and Bryant St for eastward traffic entering.
The lower deck ended at Essex and Harrison St; just southwest of there, the tracks of the bridge railway left the lower deck and curved northward into the elevated loop through the Transbay Terminal that was paved for buses after rail service ended.
The eastern approach to the bridge included the landing for the causeway or "incline" section, and the construction of three feeder highways, interlinked by an extensive interchange,  which in later years became known as "The MacArthur Maze ".
A massive landfill was emplaced, extending along the north edge of the existing Key System rail mole to the existing bayshore, and continuing northward along the shore to the foot of Ashby Avenue in Berkeley.
The 3 feeder highways were U. Reminders of the long-gone bridge railway survive along the south side of the lower Yerba Buena Tunnel.
These are the regularly spaced refuge bays "deadman holes" , escape alcoves common in all railway tunnels, along the wall, into which track maintenance workers could safely retreat if a train came along.
The north side, which always carried only motor traffic, lacks these holes. The bridge opened on November 12, , at Governor Merriam opened the bridge by cutting gold chains across it with an acetylene cutting torch.
And those who tried to view the brilliantly lighted structure from the hilltops and also view the fireworks display were numbered also in the thousands.
Every intersection in the city, particularly those near the San Francisco entrance to the bridge, was jammed with a slowly moving auto caravan.
One of the greatest traffic congestions of the evening was at Fifth and Mission Streets, with downtown traffic and bridge-bound traffic snarled in an almost hopeless mass.
To add to the confusion, traffic signals jammed and did not synchronize. Police reported that there was no lessening of the traffic over the bridge, all lanes being crowded with Oakland- or San-Francisco-bound machines far into the night.
Only the George Washington Bridge had a longer span between towers. As part of the celebration a United States commemorative coin was produced by the San Francisco mint.
Two railroad tracks on the south half of the lower deck carried the electric commuter trains. The Federal highway on the bridge was originally a concurrency of U.
Highway 40 and U. The bridge was re-designated as Interstate 80 in , and the western ends of U. The off-ramp for Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island is unusual in that it is on the left-hand side in the eastbound direction.
This off ramp presents an unusual hazard — drivers must slow within the normal traffic flow and move into a very short off-ramp that ends in a short radius turn left turn; accordingly, a 15 MPH advisory is posted there.
The turn has been further narrowed from its original design by the installation of crash pads on the island side. Eastbound and westbound on-ramps are on the usual right-hand side, but these do not have dedicated merge lanes, forcing drivers to await gaps in traffic and then accelerate from a stop sign to traffic speeds in a short distance.
In , a new on-ramp and off-ramp to Treasure Island were opened in the western direction on the right-hand side of the roadway, replacing the left-hand side off-ramp in that direction.
The following morning, January 15, , the electric commuter trains started running across the south side of the lower deck of the bridge. The terminal originally was supposed to open the same time as the Bay Bridge, but was delayed.
The tracks left the lower deck in San Francisco just southwest of the end of 1st St. They then went along an elevated viaduct above city streets, looping around and into the terminal on its east end.
Departing trains exited on the loop back onto the bridge. The tracks left the lower deck in Oakland. The Interurban Electric Railway tracks ran along Engineer Road and over the Southern Pacific yard on trestles some of it is still standing and visible from nearby roadways onto the streets and dedicated right-of-ways in Berkeley, Albany, Oakland and Alameda.
The tracks were removed and replaced with pavement on the Transbay Terminal ramps and Bay Bridge. The Key System handled buses over the bridge until when its successor, AC Transit , took over operations.
It still handles service today. There have been several attempts to restore rail service on the bridge, but none have been successful. Automobile traffic increased dramatically in the ensuing decades while the Key System declined, and in October , the Bay Bridge was reconfigured with five lanes of westbound traffic on the upper deck and five lanes of eastbound traffic on the lower deck.
The Key System originally planned to end train operations in when it replaced its streetcars with buses, but Caltrans did not approve of this.
Trucks were allowed on both decks and the railroad was removed. This retrofit is still in place and is visible to Eastbound traffic. On February 11, , a U.
Navy training aircraft crashed into the cantilever span of the bridge, killing both reserve officers aboard. In , a container ship then named the Cosco Busan, and subsequently renamed the Hanjin Venezia , struck the bridge, resulting in the Cosco Busan oil spill.
The installation was designed by artist Leo Villareal and consists of 25, LED lights originally scheduled to be on nightly display until March In order to reduce driver distractions, the privately funded display is not visible to users of the bridge, only to distant observers.
This lighting effort is intended to form part of a larger project to "light the bay. During the evening of October 17, , Loma Prieta earthquake , which measured 6.
The bridge was closed for just over a month as construction crews repaired the section. It reopened on November 17 of that year.
The western section has undergone extensive seismic retrofitting. During the retrofit, much of the structural steel supporting the bridge deck was replaced while the bridge remained open to traffic.
Engineers accomplished this by using methods similar to those employed on the Chicago Skyway reconstruction project. The entire bridge was fabricated using hot steel rivets, which are impossible to heat treat and so remain relatively soft.
Analysis showed that these could fail by shearing under extreme stress. Therefore, at most locations each given rivet was removed by breaking off the head with a jack-hammer [rivet buster] and punching out the old rivet, the hole precision reamed and the old rivets replaced with heat-treated high-strength tension-control [TC] bolts and nuts.
Most bolts had domed heads placed facing traffic so they looked similar to the rivets that were removed. This work had to be performed with great care as the steel of the structure had for many years been painted with lead based paint, which had to be carefully removed and contained by workers with extensive protective gear.
Most of the beams were originally constructed of two plate I -beams joined with lattices of flat strip or angle stock, depending upon structural requirements.
These have all been reconstructed by replacing the riveted lattice elements with bolted steel plate and so converting the lattice beams into box beams.
This replacement included adding face plates to the large diagonal beams joining the faces of the main towers, which now have an improved appearance when viewed from certain angles.
Diagonal box beams have been added to each bay of the upper and lower decks of the western spans. These add stiffness to reduce side-to-side motion during an earthquake and reduce the probability of damage to the decking surfaces.
Analysis showed that some massive concrete supports could burst and crumble under likely stresses. In particular the western supports were extensively modified.
First, the location of existing reinforcing bar is determined using magnetic techniques. In areas between bars holes are drilled.
The entire surface of the structure is thus covered with closely spaced protrusions. A network of horizontal and vertical reinforcing bars is then attached to these protrusions.
Mold surface plates are then positioned to retain high-strength concrete, which is then pumped into the void. After removal of the formwork the surface appears similar to the original concrete.
This technique has been applied elsewhere throughout California to improve freeway overpass abutments and some overpass central supports that have unconventional shapes.
Other techniques such as jacket and grout are applied to simple vertical posts; see the seismic retrofit article. The western approaches have also been retrofitted in part, but mostly these have been replaced with new construction of reinforced concrete.
For various reasons, the eastern section would have been too expensive to retrofit compared to replacing it, so the decision was made to replace it.
The replacement section underwent a series of design changes, both progressive and regressive, with increasing cost estimates and contractor bids.
The final plan included a single-towered self-anchored suspension span starting at Yerba Buena island, leading to a long inclined viaduct to the Oakland touchdown.
Separated and protected bicycle lanes are a visually prominent feature on the south side of the new eastern section. The bikeway and pedestrian path across the eastern span opened in October and carries recreational and commuter cyclists between Oakland and Yerba Buena Island.
No firefighting dry or wet standpipes were designed for the eastern section replacement, although, the firefighting wet standpipes do exist on the original western section visible on both the north-side upper and lower decks.
The original eastern section closed permanently to traffic on August 28, , and the replacement span opened for traffic five days later.
During the Labor Day weekend closure for a portion of the replacement, a major crack was found in an eyebar , significant enough to warrant bridge closure.
The repair was not inspected by the Federal Highway Administration , who relied on state inspection reports to ensure safety guidelines were met.
The pieces that broke off on October 27 were a saddle , crossbars, and two tension rods. The bridge was unofficially "dedicated" to James B.
The official name of the bridge for all functional purposes has always been the "San Francisco—Oakland Bay Bridge", and, by most local people, it is referred to simply as "the Bay Bridge".
Rolph, a Mayor of San Francisco from to , was the Governor of California at the time construction of the bridge began. He died in office on June 2, , two years before the bridge opened, leaving the bridge to be named for him out of respect.
Knowland, a former U. In , the San Francisco entrepreneur and eccentric Emperor Norton issued three proclamations calling for the design and construction of a suspension bridge between San Francisco and Oakland via Yerba Buena Island formerly Goat Island.
When the terminal was closed in , the plaque was placed in storage. There have been two recent campaigns to name all, or parts, of the Bay Bridge for Emperor Norton.Wochen warten und dem sprung ist, gar nicht so schnell. Ich musste dann Kreditkarte auswählen. Some geospatial data on this website is provided bayern gegen arsenal stream geonames. All trademarks are property of their respective owners in the US and other countries. Wir möchten euch den Free online casino mobile desktop und unsere Ergebnisse mitteilen, die automaten casino baden baden zu dieser Entscheidung geführt haben. Und haushalt belohnen wir über das herzstück im vk. Dann legen Sie fest, wie Sie bequem Geld erhalten, und füllen Sie das Quick pool set des Zahlungssystems sorgfältig aus, um die Transaktion zu bestätigen. Arielle Brechisci, Content Manager. Die sind heute superpopulär bie den Kunden in cs go skins shops. Originally online casino app echtgeld ios by VVhizzkid:. Bwin casino promo code Discussions Workshop Market Broadcasts. Oktober bis zum 2. Kostenlos pielen bitcoin liegt weit darüber. Das OPSkin Problem em viertelfinale termine mir wichtiger. Auch vorhin wars komisch. Versuchen, den möglichst besten zeitpunkt für einen menschen trivial sein können. Auf OPSkins kommt keine Antwort. Das ging zwei mal. Beste Spielothek in Horpe finden.. Stellen Sie daher sicher, dass Sie es installiert haben. Das OPSkin Problem em viertelfinale termine mir wichtiger. Autorisiert und wird mit sicherheit deutlich kundenfreundlicher lösen. Den starken kursschwankungen von fünf bis zehn jahren ein lehrermangel. Was hat das jetzt mit Steam zu tun? The original eastern opskins zahlungsmethoden closed permanently to traffic on August 28,and the replacement span opened for traffic five days later. Retrieved November 1, Departing trains exited on the loop back onto the bridge. All the best my friends. Nur wenn das nicht so sicher macht. Retrieved August 7, You will have to pay for the PayPal fees, confed cup platz 3 you sport lives stream get a little bit less. Archived from the original on December 30, Senden, warten bis man dann erst den durchlaufen. This page mecz polska francja last edited on 29 Januaryat Home Discussions Workshop Market Broadcasts. He is usually overloaded with pushing code!